Trade and R&D externalities: iImpact on the cost of production of the Tunisian manufacturing sector

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a suitable methodology for estimating the extent to which less developed countries—namely Tunisia—that hardly invest in research and development benefit from R&D that is conducted in industrial countries.

Trade, transaction costs and TFP: evidence from Tunisia and Egypt

Increases in total factor productivity (TFP) are commonly associated with accumulation of knowledge through technological innovation and investment in R&D. However, organisational innovations also improve productivity through the reduction of transaction costs.

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Technology gets rid of dictators, but not social classes

Since the Arab Spring uprisings, human rights activists worldwide have championed the power of technology, mainly the Internet and mobile phones, as tools for democracy and change. Evidence shows that they are right, social media played a role in bringing down dictatorships in the Middle East and North Africa.

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